Suggested Resources

To help navigate the myriad of resources on human trafficking, we have highlighted some of the most seminal works and innovative thinkers below. By no means is this list exhaustive, but thankfully, many of our colleagues feature additional resources.


2009 University of Nebraska Human Trafficking Conference Papers

Stop Violence Against Women - Resources on Human Trafficking

Alexander, P (1998). Sex work and health: A question of safety in the workplace. Journal of American Medical Women’s Association. Spring; 53(2), p.77-82

Beyrer, C. (2004). Is trafficking a health issue? The Lancet, 363, 564.

Busza, J. & Castle, S., Diarra, A. (2004). Trafficking and debate. British Medical Journal, 328, 1369-71.

Butcher, K. (2003). Confusion between prostitution and sex trafficking. The Lancet, 361, 1983.

Chudakov B, Ilan K, Belmaker RH, & Cwikel J. (2002). The motivation and mental health of sex workers.” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 28(4), 305-15.

Cwikel, J. & Hoban, E. (2005). Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology. The Journal of Sex Research, 42(4), 306-316.

Cwikel, J., Chudakov, B., Paikin, M., Agmon, K. & Belmaker, R.H. (2004). Trafficked female sex workers awaiting deportation: Comparison with brothel workers. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 7(4), 243-249.

Cwikel, J., Ilan, K., & Chudakov, B. (2003). Women brothel workers and occupational health risks. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57(10), 809-815.

DeBaca, Lou (2002). Working together to stop modern-day slavery. The Police Chief.

Farley, M., Cotton, A., Lynne, J., Zumbeck, S., Spiwak, F., Reyes, M.E., Alvarez , D., & Sezgin, U. (2003). Prostitution and trafficking in 9 countries: Update on violence and posttraumatic stress disorder. 
Journal of Trauma Practice, 2(3/4), 33-74.

Gozdziak, E. & Collett, A. (2005). Research on Human Trafficking in North America: A Review of Literature. International Migration, 43(1/2).

Gushulak, B.D. & MacPherson, D.W. (2000). Health issues associated with the smuggling and trafficking of migrants. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2(2), 67-78.

Hallgrimsdottir, H.K., Phillips, R. & Benoit, C. (2006). Fallen women and rescued girls: Social stigma and media narratives of the sex industry in Victoria, B.C., from 1980 to 2005. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 43(3), 265-280.

Heath, I. (2002). Treating violence as a public health problem. BMJ, 325.

Hotaling, Norma. “Making the Harm Visible,” in Making the Harm Visible: Global Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls. Eds. Donna M. Hughes and Claire Roche. Kingston: Rhode Island, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, 1999.

Hughes, D. (2000). The internet and sex industries: partners in global sexual exploitation. Technology and Society Magazine, Spring.

Kapstein, E. (2006). The new global slave trade. Foreign Affairs, 85(6), 103-115.

Kempadoo, K. (2005). Sex workers’ rights organizations and anti-trafficking campaigns. In K. Kempadoo (Ed.) Trafficking and prostitution reconsidered. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

Loff, Bebe et al. (2003). Can health programmes lead to mistreatment of sex workers? The Lancet, 361, 1982-3.

Logan, T.K., Walker, R. & Hunt, G. (2009). Understanding human trafficking in the United States. Trauma Violence Abuse, 10(3).

McDonald, W. F. (2004). Traffic counts, symbols & agendas: A critique of the campaign against trafficking of human beings. International Review of Victimology, 11(2/1).

Mutua, M. (2001). Savages, victims, and saviors: The metaphor of human rights. Harvard International Law Journal, 42(1).

Schauer, E. & Wheaton, E.M. (2006). Sex trafficking into the United States: A literature review. Criminal Justice Review, 31(2), 146-169.

Soderlund, G. (2005). Running from the rescuers: New U.S. crusades against sex trafficking and the rhetoric of abolition. NWSA Journal, 17(3).

Tavakoli, N. (2009). A crime that offends the conscience of humanity: A proposal to reclassify trafficking in women as an international crime. International Criminal Law Review, 9(1).

Tyldum, G. & Brunovskis, A. (2005). Describing the unobserved: Methodological challenges in empirical studies on human trafficking. International Migration, 43(1/2), 17-34.

Weitzer, R. (2007). The social construction of sex trafficking: Ideology and institutionalization of a moral crusade. Politics & Society, 35.

Willis, B.M. & Levy, B.S. (2002). Child prostitution: Global health burden, research needs, and interventions. The Lancet, 359, 1417-22.

Wojcicki, J. (2002). ‘She drank his money’: Survival sex and the problem of violence in taverns in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 16(3), 267-293.

Wolffers, I. & van Deelen, N. (2003). Public health and the human rights of sex workers. The Lancet. 361, 1981.

Zimmerman, C. & Watts, C. (2004). Risks and responsibilities: Guidelines for interviewing trafficked women. The Lancet, 363, 565.


Allard, Patricia (2006) Color of Violence: The INCITE! Anthology. Crime, punishment, and economic violence (pp 155-163). Cambridge, Mass: South End Press.

Azevedo, M., & Bah, Alpha. M. (2005). Legitimate Trade Diplomacy, and Slave Trade. Africana Studies: A Survey of Africa and the African Diaspora, (3rd Ed.), (pp. 71-89). Durian, N.C: Carolina Academic Press, 2005.

Aronowitz, A.A. (2009). Guidelines for the Collection of Data on Trafficking in Human Beings, Including Comparable Indicators. IOM Publication.

Bales, Kevin. multiple works - Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, The Slave Nextdoor: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today, Ending Slavery: How We Free Today’s Slaves, Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader.

Boontinand, J. (2005). Feminist Participatory Action Research in the Mekong Region. In K. Kempadoo (Ed.). in Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered, Paradigm Publishers.

Cheever, S. (2002). The nanny dilemma. In B. Ehrenreich & A.R. Hochschild (Eds.) Global woman. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.

Delgado, R. & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: an introduction. New York, NY: New York University Press.

DeStefano, A.M. (2007). The War on Human Trafficking: U.S. Policy Assessed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Farr, K. (2005). Sex Trafficking: The Global Market in Women and Children (Contemporary Social Issues). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.

Hochschild, A. (2005). Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire's Slaves. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Levy, A. (2005). Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture. New York, NY: Free Press.

Lillich, R.B. et al. (2006). International Human Rights: Problems of Law, Policy, and Practice. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers.

Mam, S. (2008). The Road of Lost Innocence. New York, NY: Spiegel & Gram.

Naim, M. (2005). Illicit. New York, NY: Doubleday/Random House.

O’Connell Davidson, J. (2005). Children in the Global Sex Trade. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press Ltd.

Outshoorn, J. (ed). (2004). The Politics of prostitution: Women’s movements, democratic states and the globalization of sex commerce. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Salazar Parrenas R. (2002). The care crisis in the Philippines: children and transnational families in the new global economy. In B. Ehrenreich & A.R. Hochschild (Eds.) Global woman. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.

Zaremkba, J.M. (2002). America’s dirty work: Migrant maids and mother-day slavery. In B. Ehrenreich & A.R. Hochschild (Eds.) Global woman. New York, NY: Metropolitan Books.

Local / Colorado Coverage

Agriculture / Hospitality / Service Industries

"Boulder owner of Siamese Plate indicted on immigration violations" by Vanessa Miller, Daily Camera
“Fields of Fear for Colorado illegal farm laborers,” by Felisa Cardona and Kevin Vaughan, The Denver Post
“Migrants exploiters to be sentenced today,” by Bruce Finley, The Denver Post
“Peruvian sheepherders' lawsuit alleges abuses by Craig ranch,” by Felisa Cardona, The Denver Post

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

“Denver man faces charges of trafficking children for sex,” by Felisa Cardona, The Denver Post
“Sweep looking for exploited children results in 26 arrests in Denver metro area,” by Howard Pankratz, The Denver Post
“Thai child-sex trade big lure for pedophiles,” by Dave Curtin, The Denver Post


"Craigslist Removes Adult Services from Website," Denver's Channel 7, ABC News
“Craigslist removes adult-services section,” by Christopher Leonard, The Denver Post

Domestic Servitude

“Feds drop charges against Al-Turki,” by Sara Burnett, Rocky Mountain News
“Probation for mother in nanny sex slavery case,” by Felix Doligosa Jr, Rocky Mountain News
“Saudi woman gets jail time, probation,” by John Aguilar, Rocky Mountain News
“Slavery conviction upheld,” Denver Post
“Wife makes plea deal in slavery case,” by Sue Lindsey, Rocky Mountain News
“Women held as slave, feds say- Aurora couple facing charges,” by Alicia Caldwell, Denver Post

Sex Work

“Debbie Matthews has bottomless respect for her strip club staff,” by Bill Husted, The Denver Post
“Faces of Prostitution: "Book" rewrites attitudes,” by Amy Herdy, The Denver Post
"Police: mom pimped girls for drugs" by Jeffrey Wolf and Deborah Sherman,, Denver
"Spain Breaks Up Male-Prostitute Trafficking Gang" by Daniel Woolls,
"Denver Siblings Face Prostitution Charges" by The Denver Post

National / International News


"A Message to Trafficking Victims that their lives matter," by Rachel Lloyd, The Huffington Post
“Combating human trafficking with social business,” by Chelsea Lyn-Rudder, The Huffington Post

Agriculture / Hospitality / Service Industries

“Nail salons and human trafficking,” by Phillip Martin, The Huffington Post
"Politics of the Plate: The Price of Tomatoes" by Barry Estabrook, Gourmet

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)

“Child sex trafficking and the politics of pimping,” by Phillip Martin, The Huffington Post
“Sex Trafficking in the United States: Children Across America are unseen victims,” by Mickey Goodman, The Huffington Post
“Trafficked: A youth radio investigation, part 1,” by Youth Radio—Youth Media International, The Huffington Post


“An Open Letter to Jim Buckmaster,” by Rachel Lloyd, The Huffington Post
“An Open Invitation to Rachel Lloyd,” by Jim Buckmaster, The Huffington Post
“Craigslist: ISO human rights,” by Sarah Sippel, Politico
“Craigslist Saga: The great migration of sex trafficking ads,” by Marissa Louie, The Huffington Post
“Craiglist says it shut down U.S. adult services ads for good,” by Cecilia Kang, The Washington Post
“How censoring Craigslist helps pimps, child traffickers and other abusive scumbags,” by Danah Boyd, The Huffington Post

Labor Trafficking

“Chipotle’s ‘Integrity’ doesn’t reach it’s farm workers,” by Sean Sellers,The Huffington Post
“Is there child slavery in your chocolate?,” by John Robbins, The Huffington Post
“Smart phone app-tivism: how can you avoid slave-made products this holiday season,” by Bama Athreya, The Huffington Post

Law Enforcement / Legislation

“Federal crackdown on child prostitution results in 884 arrests,” by Michael Martinez, written for CNN
“US Justice Department names Las Vegas among 17 most likely destinations,” written by
“Feds charge 6 in forced labor of 400 Thai workers, largest human trafficking case in U.S. history,” by Mark Niesse, The Huffington Post
"Senate Committee Passes Cardin, Boxer, Brownback Bill Addressing Child Trafficking," Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe

Sex Work

“Dallas police aim to help, not jail, prostitutes,” by The Associated Press, Connect Mid Michigan
“Deception in Advertising: Local sex ads and human trafficking victims,” by Chelsea Lyn-Rudder, The Huffington Post
"It's Not Pretty: The Cost of Glamorizing Prostitution" by Bernie
"Sex Workers (Try to) enter the Human Rights Arena," by Michelle Chen, The Huffington Post

Sports & Major Events

“Justice Fail: Lawrence Taylor walks free,” by Deborah Richardson, The Huffington Post
“Police cracking down on pimps, prostitution at Super Bowl XLV,” by Angela Brown, The Huffington Post
“Sex (trafficking) and the Super Bowl,” by Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism, The Huffington Post
“Sex Trafficking: There’s more to the Super Bowl than sports,” by John W. Whitehead, The Huffington Post


"Let's Have a Jubilee: The Torah's Fix for Modern-Day Slavery," by Sara Rubin,
“Mexico’s new war: sex trafficking,” by Melissa Graham, The Council for Hemispheric Affairs
“Modern-day Slavery: alive and well,” by Marc Gunther, The Huffington Post


Bruckert , C. & Parent, C. (2002). Trafficking In Human Beings and Organized Crime: A Literature Review. Retrieved here.

Clawson, H., Dutch, N., Lopez, S., & Tiapula, S. (2008). Prosecuting human trafficking cases: Lessons learned and promising practices (NCJ 223972). Retrieved here.

Clawson, H.J., Williamson, E., & Garrett, A. (2008). Presidential Transition: Improving data collection to combat human trafficking.

Colorado Legal Services, Migrant Farm Worker Division. (2010). Overworked and Underpaid: H-2A herders in Colorado. Retrieved here.

Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., & Fahy, S. (2008). Understanding and improving law enforcement responses to human trafficking (NCJ 222752). Retrieved here.

Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women. (2010). Beyond Borders: Exploring Links between Trafficking and Gender (GAATW Working Papers Series 2010).

Government Accountability Office. (2007). Monitoring and Evaluation of International Projects Are Limited, but Experts Suggest Improvements. Retrieved here.

Government Accountability Office. (2007). A Strategic Framework Could Help Enhance the Interagency Collaboration Needed to Effectively Combat Trafficking Crimes. Retrieved here.

Government Accountability Office. (2006). Better Data, Strategy, and Reporting Needed to Enhance U.S.Antitrafficking Efforts Abroad. Retrieved here.

International Labour Organization. (2009). The Cost of Coercion. (International Labour Conference 98th Session, Report IB). Retrieved here.

International Organization for Migration for Southern Africa. (2006). Breaking the Cycle of Vulnerability: Responding to the health needs of trafficked women in East and Southern Africa.

International Organization for Migration, London School for Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, & the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Trafficking in Persons. (2009). Caring for trafficked persons: Guidance for Health Providers.

Kyckelhahn, T., Beck, A. J., & Cohen, T. H. (2009). Characteristics of suspected human trafficking incidents, 2007-08. (Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report).

Lloyd, R. (2010) From Victim to Survivor, From Survivor to Leader: The Importance of Leadership Programming and Opportunities for Commercially Sexually Exploited and Trafficked Young Women & Girls. GEMS. Retrieved here.

Miko, F.T. (2005). Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response (CRS Report for Congress RL30545).

Moossy, R. (2009). Sex Trafficking: Identifying Cases and Victims (National Institute of Justice Journal, 262). Retrieved here.

Pier, Rebecca S. The fallacy of fuck-me feminism: A critical analysis of "sex-positive" feminist ideology.

Stanley, B. (2009). Sensationalism and its detrimental effects on the anti-human trafficking movement: A call to a critical examination of ‘abolitionist’ rhetoric. Retrieved here.

U.S. Agency for International Development. (2004). Literature Review and Analysis Related to Human Trafficking in Post-Conflict Situations.

U.S. Department of Justice. (2008). Attorney General’s Annual Report to Congress and Assessment of the U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons Fiscal Year 2007. Retrieved here.

U.S. Department of State. (2010). Trafficking in Persons Report. Retrieved here.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime. An Introduction to Human Trafficking: Vulnerability, Impact and Action. Retrieved here.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Report on human trafficking exposes modern form of slavery. Retrieved here.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime. (2009). Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns. Retrieved here.

Young, R. (2009). Data on Human Trafficking: A Consideration of Approaches. Retrieved here.

Zimmerman, C. (2003). The health risks and consequences of trafficking in women and adolescents, findings from a European study.

Zimmerman, C. et al. (2006). Stolen smiles: A summary report on the physical and psychological health consequences of women and adolescents trafficked in Europe.


Fantastic anti-human trafficking Twitter lists & follow suggestions:

Stop Human Trafficking Twitter List, curated by Richard G. Lanzara on Listorious
Human Trafficking Group on Twibe
Human Trafficking Twitter Users on